All About Health Science: Majors, Degrees & Careers

Read our comprehensive guide to the many careers you can pursue with a health science major.

Health Science as a Major

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Choosing a health science major can prepare you for a range of careers in the large and interdisciplinary healthcare field. Health Science is a robust and versatile major; it can be general enough to give you flexibility in your future career, or can be the foundation for specializations like radiography and nuclear medicine.

Those who major in health sciences may work in schools, hospitals, government agencies, in public health or administration, or for non-profit groups. Your choices are virtually limitless in this dynamic and critical health care industry.

In order to help you navigate this broad spectrum of degrees and careers, we’ve created a guide to health science majors, degree programs, career info, and salary and job growth data that can help you hone in on where you want to focus your interests and skills.


What Is Health Science?

Health science combines science and healthcare into a number of career fields that are committed to improving the healthcare industry and delivering quality care to patients, no matter what the population. You can work to improve individual and public health in a number of ways, but no matter which area you choose, you’ll use sciencetechnologyengineering, and math (STEM) to achieve your goal.

What You Can Do with a Health Sciences Degree

Just as many other career fields offer the option to work up front with patients or behind the scenes in technology support, your job in health sciences will also provide the choice of either working clinically or in the more academic and research arenas.

Where you work will of course depend upon where your interests lie. The website says health science careers can generally take five different paths. These consist of the following services and technologies:

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Diagnostic services: This involves treating or initially diagnosing a health problem through monitoring new and existing problems and following up on any abnormalities with labs, such as advising a mammogram for a breast abnormality.

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Therapeutic services: You’ll help patients heal over a short or prolonged period of time by providing direct care, treatment plans, counseling services and education about their illness or issues.

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Support services: This includes the large and crucial group of aides and assistant type roles— from medical assistants to veterinary assistants—that support primary care providers and patients in all areas of health care, including psychiatric, medical equipment and home health areas.

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Health informatics: If your strength is technology and you want to work in the health care industry, this area of health science is for you. Health informatics is the application of information technology (IT) to the planning, delivery, and management of health care services.

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Biotechnology research and development: Moving into more research- and-scientific areas of health science, biotechnology research and development workers study disease and invent treatments and antidotes by using biological processes and organisms to manufacture products intended to better our health and quality of life.


The History and Evolution of Health Sciences

Charting the history of health sciences is as all-encompassing as documenting the history of health care itself. The subject is so vast, you can even earn a degree in the history of health science—or get your master’s or doctorate in this interdisciplinary subject so you can go on to teach its evolution to students.

Health science has evolved as society, industry and technology have evolved. In ancient times there was no Industrial Revolution yet or the chemically (and other) induced toxins it produced so industry-related diseases were not evident in society. As society and its stratification progressed, it was necessary for health care to grow as need for it and its solutions evolved.

The National Center for Biotechnology Information counters that health science has adapted as our species has adapted, saying that as the environment changes the tools used to accomplish the tasks needed, such as finding solutions for disease, have changed too.

“Over the one hundred-year history of the evolution of health sciences, the field has used specialty education as the mechanism for differentiating itself…and for acquiring the knowledge and skills to succeed in the profession. Changing conditions require a continual review of that specialty education and a willingness to modify it in order to prepare it for the ever-changing environment.”

And as technology becomes an everyday part of our lives, so does the need for its use in health science as a primary method to cure and prevent disease, and as a daily tool in routine health care administration and communication.


Health Science Degree Programs

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Health science degree programs are available at every degree level, and each will prepare you to perform different roles within the health care industry. The most common health science degree is the bachelor in health science, and most of these programs are general focus curriculums that prepare you to either take a clinical or pre-professional track. Let’s take a look at the general purpose of each degree level in the field:

Associate’s Degree in Health Science

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Two-year associate’s degree programs are readily available, and are particularly useful for those who currently hold a certificate or are working in health care and want to complete a general overview degree. Completing the program will allow you to transfer credits toward your bachelor’s degree program and begin working toward a specialization in administration, health care informatics or education (or other area of health sciences). You may also find that the prestige of degree completion could help you advance in your current job.

Bachelor’s Degrees in Health Sciences

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While the bachelor’s degree in health sciences still embraces the interdisciplinary nature of the field, it provides many options for students to prepare for specific yet different careers in health science. Here are some examples of possible bachelor’s programs in health sciences:

  • The Pre-Professional Studies track provides a solid foundation for anyone interested in a medical career. This program prepares you to move into post-graduate programs that specialize in advanced areas such as chiropractic, optometry, public health and such.
  • Health Care Studies programs provide a liberal arts and humanities base, and help you ready for entry-level positions within the health care industry.
  • Advancement Programs are equivalent to degree completion programs for those already working in the industry with a two-year degree who desire to ultimately move on and pursue graduate degrees or advance within their current industry.
  • Health Care Informatics is for those who plan to specialize in technology and the use of electronic health records.
  • Public Health tracks are specifically targeted to those who want to pursue a career in the public health service, and educate students in public health principles and global health issues.
  • Research tracks put students directly into the health science arena and provide an opportunity to study biomedical sciences, data, epidemiology and biostatistics in preparation for a career in research.

Master’s Degrees in Health Sciences

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For students who want to move into administration or public health, a master’s degree in health science (MHS) allows you to hone in on your area of interest and become a leader in research, administration, policy, advocacy or education. Most two-year master’s degree programs offer the opportunity to specialize in regulatory affairs, research or administration, or health care quality. The MHS also helps currently employed professionals expand their skills. Other related master’s degree programs commonly pursued by professionals with an interest in health sciences include the Master of Public Health (MPH), the Master of Nursing and the Master of Health Administration.

Doctorate in Health Sciences

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The Doctor of Health Science (DHS or DHSc) is typically a highly specialized advancement degree designed to ready professionals for senior roles in health care or health science. Some prepare graduates to conduct research or implement solutions to health care issues. Another track in a doctorate program may be to prepare you to teach in advanced academic and clinical settings.

Online Degree Options

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If you’re looking for the flexibility of an online program, you’ll find plenty to offer as far as online and hybrid health science degree programs. Make sure your school or courses are accredited by a regional or professional commission or agency so you’re sure you’ve graduated from a quality program.

Accreditation is the seal of approval issued by peers within the educational system and industry who conduct frequent examination of the school and its coursework to ensure its tenets and curriculum are of the highest quality and currency within the industry and meet its standards.

Employers prefer to hire graduates of accredited schools, and accreditation ensures that your credits will transfer should you choose to pursue further education.

Additionally, the Council for Higher Education Accreditation recognizes several accrediting agencies based upon the location of an institution within the United States or its territories. If your school doesn’t hold professional accreditation, make sure it has been regionally approved and honored.

Health Science Courses

As you consider the areas of health science that might best fit your skills and interests, learning what you’ll study at each degree level may help you understand what track or degree will fit your goals. With that in mind, let’s take a look at some of the health science courses you’ll study at each level of your education.

What You’ll Study in Associate’s Degree Courses

Your associate’s degree program lays the groundwork for your health sciences career, so you can expect to take overview and introductory courses that provide the general foundation for your future education, yet which prepare you for some entry-level roles. Here are some example classes you might take:

  • Human anatomy and physiology
  • Ethics in health care
  • Biology principles
  • Basics of chemistry

What You’ll Study in Bachelor’s Degree Courses

Besides completing some humanities and liberal arts courses, you can expect to take classes such as these in your research or administrative track of a health science bachelor’s degree program:

  • Epidemiology and biostatistics
  • Public health practices
  • Health care economics
  • Health informatics
  • Environmental health
  • Health care quality management

In addition, you may be required to complete a capstone project under the guidance of a professor or supervisor.

What You’ll Study in Master’s Degree Courses

You’ll study topics specific to your health science specialty as you progress into post-graduate degree programs. Depending upon where and in which context you want to work, your master’s degree program should be customized to your specialization. Expect courses to include the following:

  • Health care management
  • Health care policy
  • Public health
  • Health services leadership
  • Risk management
  • Disease management
  • Health education

What You’ll Study in Doctoral Degree Courses

Depending upon which track you decide upon, coursework in the DHSc or DHS program should prepare you to conduct research or lead at a high or global level. Some of the courses you can expect to take include the following:

  • Clinical competencies in health care
  • Health policy–planning and management 
  • Health care education
  • Patient safety
  • Medical writing
  • Community health promotion
  • Global health issues
  • Global epidemiology
  • Health law

You should be required to gain experience through an internship and practicum as well, and as in most doctorate programs, you’ll have a doctoral thesis to prepare and present at the completion of your program.

If you’re concerned that an online program may offer different curriculum than a traditional program, you’ll be relieved to know that the coursework should be nearly identical and you’ll have access to your professors and classmates, just as you would in a brick and mortar school. If you are choosing a clinical track where you may need to complete a practicum or garner hands-on experience (such as a phlebotomist, where you’ll need to complete a number of blood draws on live specimens), you may need to be on campus for some of your classes.

Examples of Health Science Careers

Many of the career fields within health sciences involve technician and assistant jobs as well as technology and informatics roles. The great news is the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics anticipates a much faster than average job growth for most careers in health sciences and for healthcare in general. With an 15% growth figure over the next decade, that equates to around 2.4 million new jobs, which is more jobs than any other group of occupations.

Health Sciences Career Growth


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The BLS cites an aging population and federal health insurance reform as the primary reasons for this spurt of growth. Nonetheless, it spells good news for those with a calling for helping people and animals through quality health care.

As health sciences is an unusually broad field with an unlimited array of choices, here are some examples of the variety available in top careers in the health sciences field, according to

  • Audiologists
  • Dietitians and Nutritionists
  • Medical Assistants
  • Occupational Therapists
  • Nurses and Nurse Practitioners
  • Dental Assistants
  • Medical and Clinical Lab Technicians
  • Nuclear Medicine Technologists
  • Nurses and Nurse Practitioners
  • All Radiology, Medical Imaging and Ultrasound Careers

If you’re looking for a career within health sciences that is somewhat out of the conventional path associated with health care, here are a few specialized areas you might explore that will allow you to utilize your particular skill set:

  • Orthotists and Prosthetics Designer
  • Chiropractor
  • Arts Therapist Using Dance, Drama or Art
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Alternative or Holistic Medicine Career

Ready to Make Your Move?

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Whether you want to help patients live healthier, better lives or perform research that could eliminate a deadly virus, it all starts by earning your degree. Now that you know more about the health sciences and the many options available to you, your next step should be to find the right school program that will help you get started on the path to making your goal a reality. It’s as easy a clicking Find Schools and requesting free information from the colleges that fit your education and lifestyle needs.

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